Both are books probably lost to time, though maybe one day one or all will be found. They are mentioned in 2 Chronicles 9:29

“Now the rest of the acts of Solomon, first and last, are they not written in the book of Nathan the prophet, and in the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, and in the visions of Iddo the seer against Jeroboam the son of Nebat?”

It is also mentioned in 2 Chronicles 12:15 relating to Rehoboam and 2 Chronicles 13:22 relating to Abijah.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visions_of_Iddo_the_Seer

New International Version
“The first lot, which was for Asaph, fell to Joseph, his sons and relatives 12 the second to Gedaliah, him and his relatives and sons 12”

Over and over they kept saying each lot fell to 12. 

According to https://www.gotquestions.org/casting-lots.html  “Various offices and functions in the temple were also determined by lot (1 Chronicles 24:53125:8-926:13-14).”

This appears to be 12 was this specific job and each time someone drew 12, the received the said job. “God allowed the Israelites to cast lots in order to determine His will for a given situation…”

All throughout the Old Testament it says someone is tearing their garments. 

According to https://www.gotquestions.org/tear-clothes-Bible.html it meant a display of sorrow, loss, or mourning in Jewish custom.

Another interesting article on the subject is found here https://www.jw.org/en/publications/magazines/ws20140815/rip-apart-garments/it also dicusses why they got rid of this custom.

I’m not going to lie… this passage troubled me. It says:

2 Kings 2:23-24, “Then he went up from there to Bethel; and as he was going up by the way, young lads came out from the city and mocked him and said to him, “Go up, you baldhead; go up, you baldhead!” 24 When he looked behind him and saw them, he cursed them in the name of the LORD. Then two female bears came out of the woods and tore up forty-two lads of their number.”

The site, https://carm.org/why-did-god-kill-42-lads-merely-saying-elisha-was-bald gives the explanation, “Given the challenge of the youths, their intimidating number which could constitute a mob, their veiled threat, the contemptuous attitude, and the fact that Elisha was the prophet of God, the Lord allowed the youths to be destroyed. But, God did not break his own moral law.  The Bible says do not murder.  Murder is the unlawful taking of life.  But, all people have sinned against God and are worthy of death (Rom. 3:236:23).  So, God had them killed according to the Law.”

This site has a better explanation: https://www.gotquestions.org/Elisha-baldhead.html  “In summary, 2 Kings 2:23-24 is not an account of God mauling young children for making fun of a bald man. Rather, it is a record of an insulting demonstration against God’s prophet by a large group of young men. Because these young people of about 20 years of age or older (the same term is used of Solomon in 1 Kings 3:7) so despised the prophet of the Lord, Elisha called upon the Lord to deal with the rebels as He saw fit. The Lord’s punishment was the mauling of 42 of them by two female bears. The penalty was clearly justified, for to ridicule Elisha was to ridicule the Lord Himself. The seriousness of the crime was indicated by the seriousness of the punishment. The appalling judgment was God’s warning to all who would scorn the prophets of the Lord.”

I think it is fair to take into consideration that in this time, God was more visible to the people, and with his spirit and presence be obviously observed in his servants, to mock and disrespect him has severe consequences. It worries me thinking about how badly people mock God, Jesus, and Christianity as a whole. I am guilty of terrible thoughts, statements, and the likes. While I feel I am better than before, now that I have been in the word, I still am guilty of disrespect. I still fear for those who regularly mock God and take his name in vain. Reading the Old Testament really shows you how disrespect to God will invoke his wrath, and rightfully so. I implore anyone reading this to ask for forgiveness for yourself and others. 

It states that these books have been lost and have not yet been found. Some interesting information can be found here: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/books-of-the-chronicles-of-the-kings-of-judah-and-israel They also state “he content of these books appears identical in character to the Assyrian annals. Probably the mass of facts on royal activities in Kings came from these books.”

 

An Asherah pole is a sacred tree or pole that stood near Canaanite religious locations to honor the Ugaritic mother-goddess Asherah, consort of El. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asherah_pole

More information is found here: https://www.gotquestions.org/Asherah-pole.html

According to some websites, the Golden Calf was an intermediary (similar to Moses) to their god. http://thetorah.com/what-was-the-golden-calf/

Others state that the golden calf is a symbol of desire.

According to the website: https://www.gotquestions.org/Solomon-Adonijah-Abishag.html

“Solomon rightly saw Adonijah’s desire to marry Abishag as part of his brother’s ongoing attempt to take over the kingdom of Israel.
In those days of royal harems, taking possession of a king’s concubines was a declaration of one’s right to the throne. This had been one of Absalom’s methods when he led a coup against David (2 Samuel 16:22). Since Abishag was considered part of David’s harem, her marriage to Adonijah would have strengthened the usurper’s claim to the throne.”

Another great explanation I found on a Catholic forum. User Rocks_91 says “This Adonijah had previously declared himself king. David wanted his son Solomon to be king, as he had promised his wife that it would be so, and had Solomon anointed and crowned.

When Adonijah made the request to Bathsheba to take one of Solomon’s servants as his wife, of course Solomon must have thought that the guy had some nerve. Solomon saw him as a very dangerous person and a potential threat to his kingdom, and thus had him killed.” https://forums.catholic.com/t/why-did-solomon-have-adonijah-killed/255524 The full conversation and thread can be found here: 

In this passage I was confused as to why God grew angry at Israel and David for numbering his people (taking a census.) 

According to this website: https://www.gotquestions.org/David-census.html it says “As to why God was angry at David, in those times, a man only had the right to count or number what belonged to him. Israel did not belong to David; Israel belonged to God.”

They also speculate that it was Satan who tempted David to take a census of his people. 

Another website https://www.thisisyourbible.com/index.php?page=questions&task=show&mediaid=1122 corroborates this theory by saying ” 1 Chronicles 21:1 And Satan stood up against Israel, and provoked (Hebrew two sooth) David to number Israel. ‘Satan’ in Hebrew means ‘adversary’. In Numbers 22:22 ‘satan’ is properly translated as ‘adversary’.”

I found this passage fascinating and did some research on it. I found a paper from  US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4113151/ here is the link to the paper. The paper explains how giants in the Bible can be scientifically explained through genetics. Very interesting read. The abstract of the paper reads:

“The biblical giant Goliath has an identifiable family tree suggestive of autosomal dominant inheritance. We suggest that he had a hereditary pituitary disorder possibly due to the AIP gene, causing early onset and familial acromegaly or gigantism. We comment on the evidence within the scriptures for his other relatives including a relative with six digits and speculate on possible causes of the six digits. Recognition of a hereditary pituitary disorder in the biblical Goliath and his family sheds additional information on his and other family members’ battles with David and his relatives.”

I will make a much larger post about Giants in the Bible soon.

This website http://globalchristiancenter.com/christian-living/lesser-known-bible-people/31287-ahitophel-the-wise-man-who-committed-suicide has a fantastic write up about Ahithophel as a whole. Many things that I missed in my first reading that went into this story.

Quoted from the site above and abbreviated: “You see Ahitophel was the one person who was in the know when David committed adultery with Bathsheba. He was in the Palace, in the confidence of the King, and he was Bathsheba’s Grandfather! Yes look up 2 Samuel 11:3. Bathsheba was the daughter of Eliam whose father was Ahitophel.

Here is the seed of betrayal that years later became the motivation to turn on David and join Absalom….

…Grandfather Ahitophel carried that grudge for years, and David never knew it. In Psalm 41:9 David laments, “Yea mine own familiar friend in whom I trusted, which did eat of my bread, hath lifted up his heel against me.”…

…When Ahitophel saw that his advice to Absalom to attack David immediately and kill him, was rejected, he knew that David would come out the victor and there was no future for him, so he went home, related the events to his family, and according to Josephus, he went into an inner room, hanged himself, and the family buried him.”

Another good article on the topic: http://www.believersmagazine.com/bm.php?i=20050106